RESEARCH

Surgery

Research Summary

Liver/Biliary Tract/Pancreas and Transplant
1) Analysis of the hepatoprotective effects of herbal medicines and foods aimed at inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, one of the liver-damaging factors; 2) Evaluation of the liver-regeneration promoting effects of mesenchymal bone marrow cells in the damaged liver, after hepatectomy, or in the transplanted liver; (3) Basic research on new technology for liver regeneration using stem cells to save the lives of patients with end-stage liver disease, which is conducted jointly with the department of public health; (4) Analysis of the relationship between transforming growth factor-β signal transduction and outcomes of patients with liver cancer; 5) Development of a therapeutic strategy tailored to the immune state of pancreatic cancer patients; 6) Analysis of immune checkpoint by immunohistochemical methods using fluorescent nanoparticles in patients with liver, biliary tract, or pancreatic cancer; 7) Study of cancer-related genes in liver, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancers; 8) Development of new treatment methods for intractable cancers, such as the drug delivery system for administering anticancer agents encapsulated within PLGA nanoparticles. 
 
Gastroenterology
1) Analysis of iNOS-induced signal transduction mechanism(s) and study on prevention of cancer onset/progression by inhibiting iNOS induction (planned to be followed by analysis of the relationships to cancer malignancy level and outcomes, with the set goal of developing new drugs for cancer treatment); 2) Elucidation of the mechanism(s) underlying lymph node metastasis and peritoneal disseminated metastasis through detection of the oncogene exosome RNA in blood from patients with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, or other cancers; 3) Development of intraoperative instantaneous/quantitative pathological diagnostic methods for tumorous lesions with the use of light-emitting probes, etc.; 4) Elucidation of the molecular biological mechanism of damaged intestinal mucosal repair processes using rat models of inflammatory bowel disease, animal models of small intestinal ischemic reperfusion injury, etc.; 5) Joint research with the departments of pathology and medical chemistry (basic and clinical studies on innovative analgesic methods for postoperative pain control being conducted jointly with the latter department). Furthermore, studies using animal models and clinical studies are planned concerning the efficacy of sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass surgery for severe obesity and diabetes mellitus. 
 
Pediatric surgery
1) The regeneration-promoting effect of epidermal growth factor following small bowel transplantation has been evaluated from the aspect of iNOS-induced signal transduction mechanisms. Henceforth, pathophysiological changes after transplantation associated with ischemic-reperfusion preconditioning will be clarified; 2) Development of the optimal surgical technique for congenital biliary dilatation or atresia; 3) Elucidation of pathophysiological features of neonatal gastrointestinal perforation; 4) Basic and clinical studies on postoperative defecation function in patients with Hirschsprung’s disease or anal atresia; 5) Development of minimally invasive surgery for treatment of pediatric surgical diseases; 6) Development of virotherapy for malignant refractory sarcomas, etc.
 
Vascular surgery
1) Biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis of severe leg ischemia have been explored. Henceforth, prospective studies will be conducted on promising indicators; 2) Establishment of physiological function testing methods enabling early identification of cases requiring vascular reconstruction because of severe leg ischemia and cases likely to achieve improvement with conservative treatment; 3) Clarification of the criteria for selecting vascular reconstruction techniques for severe leg ischemia through joint research involving nationwide facilities; 4) Joint research for the establishment of better treatment strategies is being conducted through a nationwide survey of deep-seated venous thrombosis; 5) Joint research with the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center is being planned to investigate hereditary dyslipidemia in patients with vascular disease. 
 
Breast surgery
1) Evaluation of the strut-based accelerated partial breast irradiation; 2) Analysis of immune checkpoint by immunohistochemical methods using fluorescent nanoparticles in patients with breast cancer; 3) Study of cancer-related genes in breast cancer.